Home Columnist FORESTRY UPDATE by Gary Allen Burns 11-23

FORESTRY UPDATE by Gary Allen Burns 11-23

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According to an article by Dylon Craven in Global Change Biology, the European earthworm, which was introduced into North America in the 19th century, is reducing plant biodiversity here, resulting in an increased presence of grasses and invasive trees, such as buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Earthworms tend to have a symbiotic relationship with soil fungi. The soil change has led to declines in trees in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Also impacted are ground-nesting birds and salamanders which need fallen leaves as habitat and nesting material.