Three turkey subspecies are found in Texas: Rio Grande, Merriam’s and Eastern. The Eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopara silvestris) used to be populous in East Texas,, but were nearly eradicated by 1900 and despite restocking, populations are low. Their natural range includes the Pineywoods and Post Oak savannah ecoregions of East Texas, the Trinity River being the western boundary.

Eastern wild turkeys are the most abundant turkey species in the United States, as well as being the most hunted. They usually prefer hardwood or mixed hardwood pine forests that contain open areas and are more vulnerable to predators where there is little ground-level vegetation.